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EMERGENCIES: BILGING

The following text prepared is keeping in mind, the resolution A.1072(28) adopted on 4 December 2013, ‘Revised guidelines for a structure of an integrated system of contingency planning for shipboard emergencies’. The following objectives are kept in mind:

  1. Identifying and following common action items to avoid confusion.
  2. Same teams are created to handle all the emergencies.
  3. Providing similar duties to crew members.
  4. one of the important duties are missed out.
  5. No time is lost in commencing the most apt action.

Emergency: Bilging
Signal: Continuous sounding of ship’s electrical bell or ship’s whistle for not less than 10 seconds

Sr. NoRankSpecific duties for bilging
 Bridge Team 
1MasterTransmit Urgency / Mayday as per situation giving name call sign, position, brief details of damage to hull and assistance needed. Carry out buoyancy, strength and stability calculations. Equalise in the situation of list. Shift bunkers aft to smoothen trim. Take some ballast in after peak if necessary. Calculate of FSE and stresses.Calculate sinkage for possible failure of pumping out.Take guidance from similar condition of loading and damage. Consider possibility of proceeding to POR. Check the consequences and necessity of abandoning vessel.
63rd OfficerAssist Master in navigation and course keeping
161 H/manOn helm
 Attack Team 
2Ch OfficerRefer to cross flooding and Damage stability software. Arrange pumping out.Assess stability, stresses, etc in consultation with Master.Make more close observation with crew 3, 4 & 5, to make detailed assessment of damage. If pollution occurs follow SOPEP. Assess properties of cargoes / substances carried. Consider damage to / risk to cargo, etc. Consider locations and quantities of hazardous cargoes / substances.
9Fitter1Water tight doors, preparation of collision mat, plugging or cement box.
17Crew 3Soundings on deck
18Crew 4Monitor adjacent compartments and assist chief Officer.
19Crew 5Monitor adjacent compartments and assist chief Officer.
22Salon 3Assist Ch off at site
23Salon 4Assist Ch off at site
 Engine Room Team 
3Ch EngineerBrief about specific duties after muster. In communication with Master and 2nd engineer. Monitor ME operations.
84th EngineerHead Count. Assist Chief Engineer in E/R
14ER 1Assist Chief Engineer in E/R
15ER 2Assist Chief Engineer in E/R
 Technical Team 
42nd EngineerArrange direct pumping out with fitter 2 & ER 3.
73rd EngineerLife boat engines and emergency generator. Assist 2nd Engineer
10Fitter 2Assist 2nd Engineer for direct pump out.
11ElectricianEmergency lights, batteries.
24ER 3Assist 2nd Engineer
 Support Team 
52nd OfficerEnsure essential lifeboat equipment are in state of readiness at boat deck
12Crew 1Stretcher. To assist 2nd officer
13Crew 2To assist 2nd officer
20Saloon 1Assist 2nd officer
21Saloon 2Assist 2nd  officer

[A] “Initial actions”
Person, who detects ingressed water first, must first ring nearest alarm. The officer of the watch must activate general alarm and call Master. Speed is reduced and vessel headed in the direction in which stresses are minimum. Thus, in the direction of minimum pitching. Head count is made at specified locations. Report is made to Bridge. Briefing of specific duties is made by team heads, relevant to the emergency. A quick check of all the soundings must be arranged to determine the exact location and cause of leak. Report for transmission of distress / Urgency is prepared. Situation report prepared. (standardized format is used). Urgency / Mayday as appropriate must include name call sign, position, brief details of the damage to hull and assistance needed.  The initial report for ‘Emergency Response Services’, is prepared and sent.

[B] Master’s Responsibilities

The Master is responsible for the organizing of emergency handling and for the availability and immediate use of the systems and equipment available. He should delegate the various tasks to suitable qualified officers. Brief meeting with senior officers is conducted or the instructions conveyed by radio phone.

[C] Measures to be taken
Organized activities are introduced. Required equipment are kept ready, Analysis of situation is made. Priority of measures is considered. Record keeping is ensured. Damage stability computer and Damage Control Plan kept handy. Relevant check list followed. Things like closing of water tight doors etc are important.
Buoyancy, strength and stability calculations are done. Equalising is done if necessary.  A shift of bunkers aft may be done to smoothen trim. Some ballast may be taken in after peak to reduce trim. FSE and stresses are considered. Sinkage is calculated, for possible failure of pumping out, by constant displacement method. Thus, sinkage s is given by s= Lost byouancy \ Intact WPA. Total WPA of ship being . Since intact WPA is total WPA – lost WPA, the intact WPA = total WPA – (lxb)p, where p is the permeability.New KB may be found by taking moments of buoyancy. BM is given by Residual MI/Intact u/w volume. Total MI of WPA at any draft is given by BMTx u/w volume. Guidance about GZ curve and the satisfaction of damage stability criteria is taken from similar condition of loading and damage. ERS is updated as necessary. Trim and list may be found by added weight method, which is like intact stability calculations, where incoming water is assumed as added mass giving list and trim.

[D] Further actions

Damage stability software is referred. Assessment of stability, stresses, etc is done. More closer assessment is done for current situation. Ch off.  is assisted by crew 3, 4 & 5, saloon 3 & 4. He makes detailed assessment of damage. If pollution occurs SOPEP is followed. Properties of cargoes / substances carried is considered.  Damage to / risk to cargo; location and quantities of hazardous cargoes / substances, etc are considered.  ERS is updated with number of persons, dangerous goods onboard, etc.

[E] Planning of subsequent response actions
The planning of subsequent response actions considering information relating to the individual ship and its cargo may be done for the following matters:

[F] Readiness regarding Lowering of Lifeboat
The 2nd Mate, as incharge of support team can keep the lifeboat ready for lowering in the initial stow position.

[G] Consider Repairs
Reduction of damage, attending to root cause, etc are considered. Blocking small holes, preventing / reducing ingress, making of cement box, etc is considered.

[H] Reporting
The incident and situation must be reported to the following in appropriate format, (data required is kept handy):

[I] Steps to initiate external response: The data required to facilitate the following is considered and kept ready:
In the bilged condition the vessel, definitely can not continue with her voyage. The place of refuge is inevitable. The things can even go worse. The following considerations may become relevant.

[J] Pollution
Reporting procedures are followed. The evidences and facts are logged down.

[K ]Check necessity of abandoning vessel
The overall assessment of ship regarding stability, buoyancy, damage and seaworthiness is made. Consideration about abandoning is carefully assessed.

[L] Non-conformity report
All non-conformities/deficiencies becoming known by the Master, officers and responsible crew members in connection with measures should be collected, recorded and sent to the company/designated person(s) or other, nominated person(s) as soon as possible. Damage to ship affecting the class is noted and forwarded to class.

[M] Restore normal ship routine/operation
The used equipment are made operational. The final report is sent to all concerned parties regarding updated status.

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