Q. What does Annex 14 of CSS code contain?
The Annex 14 of the CSS Code, relating to the “Guidance on Providing Safe Working Conditions for Securing of Containers on Deck” was introduced to the CSS Code by the Maritime Safety Committee, at its eighty-seventh session and subsequently amended at its ninety-fourth session.
To ensure that persons engaged in carrying out container securing operations on deck have safe working conditions and, in particular safe access, appropriate securing equipment and safe places of work. These guidelines should be taken into account at the design stage when securing systems are devised.
Q. What aspects of container loading are covered in annex 1 of CSS code?
Annex 1 deals with Safe stowage and securing of containers on deck of ships which are not specially designed and fitted for the purpose of carrying containers.
Q. What are the recent amendments to SOLAS II/2, in respect of fire fighting arrangements on container ships?
Amendments to SOLAS regulation II-2/10 are concerning fire protection requirements for new ships designed to carry containers on or above the weather deck. Thus, ships shall carry, in addition to the equipment and arrangements required, at least one water mist lance.
Ships designed to carry five or more tiers of containers on or above the weather deck shall additionally carry, mobile water monitors as follows:
- ships with breadth less than 30 m: at least two mobile water monitors; or
- ships with breadth of 30 m or more: at least four mobile water monitors.
The mobile water monitors, all necessary hoses, fittings and required fixing hardware shall be kept ready for use in a location outside the cargo space area not likely to be cut-off in the event of a fire in the cargo spaces.
Sufficient number of fire hydrants shall be provided such that:
- all provided mobile water monitors can be operated simultaneously for creating effective water barriers forward and aft of each container bay;
- the two jets of water required can be supplied at the pressure required; and
- each of the required mobile water monitors can be supplied by separate hydrants at the pressure necessary to reach the top tier of containers on deck.
Q. How can a fibre rope used in lashings be tightened?
The fiber rope is hand tightened across the cargoes like flexible containers, plastic drums, etc the rope is doubled and then baton is inserted in between the two ropes and turned. The turning of the baton tightens the rope. When the rope is tight enough the baton is held under tension along the cargo or dunnage plywood board.
Q. What are the types of bilges in cargo holds?
The bilges in dry cargo holds are generally two types. The older general cargo holds had box bilges on both the sides, extending over the full length. At the turn of the bilge the box type bilge is more or less triangular in cross section. The various sections are covered on top by wooden boards. These can be removed for cleaning the bilges. The after part of the box has holed strum box with bilge suction pipe.
Q. What about the bilge wells?
Bilge wells are located in the after part of the hold on both the sides. The well is divided in two sections. The forward section receives the water from the hold first. Through the separating bar the water overflows into the rear section. Heavier impurities remain low in front section. Floating particles are prevented by the holed strum box from entering the bilge line. Bilge well is covered by a holed manhole cover.
Q. What are the Olympic lashings and group lashings used to secure the top layer of steel coils?
Q. What is a bull wire?
It is a wire rope sling used in conjunction with a snatch block to pull a cargo unit inwards from the hatch square. The snatch block is secured on the bulkhead in the under deck portion or the ship side in the wing area. A wire rope sling is rove through the snatch block. From the landing area in the hatch square the cargo unit is dragged inwards by the wire rope sling.
Q. What does annex 13 of CSS Code contain?
Annex 13 is provides methods to assess the efficiency of securing arrangements for non standardized cargo. Annex 13 provides the methods of calculating and ensuring the adequacy of the lashing material and its strength to secure a cargo unit should be provided to Master t against possible movement during the ship motion, rolling, pitching etc.
Q. What information regarding a non standard heavy cargo should be provided to the shipmaster?
Master should be provided with gross mass, dimensions, picture, location of CG, bedding areas and bedding precautions, lifting points securing points.
Q. What information is available in annex 13 in respect of forces that are accounted and are responsible for moving a cargo unit, while sailing?
- The longitudinal, transverse and vertical accelerations respectively are obtained from table 2 owing to the stowed location of the cargo unit viz. at 20 or 70 % of L from aft at low deck position.
- A factor is applied in all the three equations related to the 3 accelerations, allowing for the speed and length of vessel and is obtained from table 3.
- Force by the wind thrust is assumed to be 1kN per m2.
- Force by the sea sloshing is 1kN per m2. The area is found allowing a 2m submersion of cargo unit.
- Tables are available to find calculated strength (CS) from mean securing load, which in turn can be found from breaking stress. This can be found for various lashing material.
Q. What is the transverse acceleration for a position 70% of L from aft and a low deck stow? If the factor the present speed / length ratio is 0.89, what transverse force will act on a cargo unit weighing 70t?
It will be 70 x 6.3 x 0.89 = 260.2 kN.
Q. If the fore and aft length is 5m and height is 4m, what is thrust due wind and shipping seas?
It will be 5 x 4 x 1 = 20kN due wind and 5 x 2 x 1 = 10 kN due sea sloshing.
Q. If the coefficient of friction is 0.3 and there are 4 lashings on one side with CS = 65kN and allowance for the angle of lashing wire ropes is 0.96, what is the preventive force against shifting?
It will be (70 x 9.81 x 0.3) + (4 x 65 x 0.96) = 206 + 249.6 = 455.6 kN.
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